THE SUDDEN CIVILIZATION
" When Napoleon arrived in Egypt in 1799, he took with him scholars to study and explain these monuments (pyramids, temple-cities half buried in the sands, guarded by strange stone beasts called sphinxes). One of his officers found near Rosetta a stone slab on which was carved a proclamation from 196 B.C. written in the ancient Egyptian pictographic writing (hieroglyphic) as well as in two other scripts.
A Capture of a village near Rosetta, by Luigi Mayer.
"Was the origin of our civilization, then, in Egypt?
"...Except for mispronouncing the name - it should have been Shumer, not Sumer - Oppert was right (January 1869 Jules Oppert). Sumer was not a mysterious, distant land, but the early name for southern Mesopotamia, just as the book of Genesis had clearly stated: The royal cities of Babylon and Akkad and Erech were in "the Land of Shin'ar." (Shinar was the biblical name for Shumer).
"The first significant excavation of a Sumerian site was begun in 1877 by French archaeologists and the finds from this single site were so extensive that others continued to dig there until 1933 without completing the job.
More than with the divine and spiritual they concerned themselves with crops, measuring fields, calculating prices.
They had a parallel system of mathematics.
When a poor man dies, do not try to revive him.
He who possesses much silver, may be happy;
Man: for his pleasure: Marriage;
It is not the heart which leads to enmity;
In a city without watchdogs, the fox is the overseer.
"We always knew", the Berkeley team explained, "that there was music in the earlier Assirio-Babylonian civilization, but until this deciphering we did not know that it had the same heptatonic-diatonic scale that is characteristic of contemporary Western music, and of Greek music of the first millennium B.C." Until now it was thought that Western music originated in Greece; now it has been established that our music - as so much else of Western civilization - originated in Mesopotamia.
"There can be no doubt that music and song must also be claimed as a Sumerian "first"
"........Like so many other Sumerian achievements, music and song also originated in the temples. But, beginning in the service of the gods, these performing arts soon were also prevalent outside the temples. Employing the favorite Sumerian play on words, a popular saying commented on the fees charged by singers: "A singer whose voice is not sweet is a "poor" singer indeed."
"Many Sumerian love songs have been found, they were undoubtedly sung to musical accompaniment. Most touching, however, is a lullaby that a mother composed and sang to her sick child:
"What is striking about such music and songs is not only the conclusions that Sumer was the source of Western music in structure and harmonic composition. No less significant is the fact that as we hear the music and read the poems, they do not sound strange or alien at all even in their depth of feeling and their sentiments. Indeed, as we contemplate the great Sumerian civilization, we find that not only are our morals and our sense of justice, our laws and architecture and arts and technology rooted in Sumer, but the Sumerian institutions are so familiar, so close. At heart, it would seem, we are all Sumerians.
Finding the First Temple Dedicated To Enki...
"In 1919, H. R. Hall came upon ancient ruins at a village now called El-Ubaid. The site gave its name to what scholars now consider the first phase of the great Sumerian civilization. Sumerian cities of that period -ranging from northern Mesopotamia to the southern Zagron foothills -produced the first use of clay bricks, plastered walls, mosaic decorations, cemeteries with brick-lined graves, painted and decorated ceramic wares with geometric designs, copper mirrors, beads of imported turquoise, paint for eye-lids, copper-headed "tomahawks," cloth, houses, and, above all, monumental temple buildings.
"Farther south, the archaeologists found Eridu - the first Sumerian city, according to ancient texts. As the excavators dug deeper, they came upon a temple dedicated to Enki, Sumer's God of Knowledge, which appeared to have been built and rebuilt many times over. The strata clearly led the scholars back to the beginnings of Sumerian civilization: 2500 B.C., 2800 B.C., 3000 B.C., 3500 B.C.
"The spades came upon the foundations of the first temple dedicated to Enki. Below that, there was virgin soil - nothing had been built before. The time was circa 3800 B.C. That is when civilization began.
"Having begun to use stones as tools some 2,000,000 years earlier, Man achieved this unprecedented civilization in Sumer circa 3800 B.C. And the perplexing fact about this is that to this very day the scholars have no inkling who the Sumerians were, where they came from, and how and why their civilization appeared.
"For its appearance was sudden, unexpected, and out of nowhere.
"H. Frankfort (Tell Uquir) called it "astonishing." Pierre Amiet, (Elam) termed it "extraordinary." A. Parrot (Sumer) described it as "a flame which blazed up so suddenly." Leo Oppenheim (Ancient Mesopotamia) stressed "the astonishing short period" within which this civilization had arisen. Joseph Campbell (The Masks of God) summed it up in this way: "With stunning abruptness ... there appears in this little Sumerian mud garden ... the whole cultural syndrome that has since constituted the germinal unit of all the high civilizations of the world."
I believe these perceptions of Mr. Sitchin are vital to offer the complete picture of what is to follow.
GODS OF HEAVEN AND EARTH
The Importance of Number 12
Mr. Sitchin takes the reader through the Greek Olympian gods because through their history it is confirmed that the Greek never claimed that their gods came from the heavens. (Rather, they arrived from other lands with traditions and religion). Zeus arrived from the Mediterranean, via Crete. Aphrodite, from the Near East, via Cyprus.
Poseidon (Neptune to the Romans) brought the horse with him from Asia Minor. Athena, brought the olive, fertile and self-sown from the lands of the Bible. And it is in the Mediterranean Island that Mr. Sitchin looks for the origin of the Greek gods and their astral relationship with the number 12.
It is known that the Olympian gods could not exceed 12 in number, nor be less than 12 in number. The Hittites of the Old Testament also practiced this system of no more and no less than 12 gods of Heaven and Earth.
Mr. Sitchin also studies the Hindu system of the ancients and finds a similarity. To read "The 12th Planet" is a must to be able to appreciate and understand the correlation.
".....It was summed up by one of the tenths of thousands of ancient Mesopotamian inscriptions that have been uncovered: "Whatever seems beautiful, we made by the grace of the gods."
"The gods of Sumer. Who were they? Over the years, startling evidence has been unearthed!
"A long and well preserved Hittite epic tale, entitled "Kingship in Heaven" deals with this very subject - the heavenly origin of the gods. The recounter of those premortal events first called upon twelve "mighty olden gods" to listen to his tale and be witnesses to its accuracy:
The bridge were a people called the Hurrians. The Old Testament refers to them as the Horites (free people), the Egyptians referred to their kingdom as the Mitanni. There is confirmation now that they were the Aryans. (Mr. Sitchin gives a vast explanation about this in his book)
It was the Hurrians who absorbed and transmitted the religion of Sumer. This was obvious from the frequent use of the original Sumerian divine names, epithets, and writing signs. Even the Hurrian duplicated Sumerian art, its form, its themes, and its symbols.
There is evidence that the Hurrians were present in Sumeria in the third millennium B.C., that they held important positions in Sumer in the last period of glory, that of the third dynasty of Ur.
"......The lands that are today Israel, Lebanon, and southern Syria -which formed the southwestern band of the ancient Fertile Crescent -were then the habitat of peoples that can be grouped together as the Canaanites.
".....The pantheon that unfolds from the Canaanite texts bears many similarities to the later Greek one. At the head of the Canaanite pantheon, too, there was a supreme deity called EL, a word that was the personal name of the god and the generic term meaning "lofty deity."
"A stela found in Palestine depicts an elderly deity sitting on a throne and being served a beverage by a younger deity. The seated deity wears a conical headdress adorned with horns - a mark of the gods, as we have seen, from prehistoric times - and the scene is dominated by the Symbol of a Winged Star - the ubiquitous emblem that we shall increasingly encounter. It is generally accepted by the scholars that this sculptured relief depicts EL, the senior Canaanite deity.
"The Egyptians believed in Gods of Heaven and Earth. Great Gods that were clearly distinguished from the multitudes of lesser deities. G.A. Wainwright (The Sky Religion in Egypt) summed up the evidence, showing that the Egyptian belief in Gods of Heaven who descended to Earth from the skies was "extremely ancient." Some of the epithets of these Great Gods - Greatest God-Bull of Heaven, Lord/Lady of the Mountains - sound familiar.
"Although the Egyptians counted by the decimal system, their religious affairs were governed by the Sumerian sexagesimal sixty, and celestial matters were subjected to the divine number twelve. The heavens were divided into three parts, each comprising twelve celestial bodies. The afterworld was divided into twelve parts. Day and night were each divided into twelve hours. And all these divisions were paralleled by "companies" of gods, which in turn consisted of - twelve gods each.
"The head of the Egyptian pantheon was Ra ("creator") who presided over an Assembly of the Gods that numbered twelve.
"......Ra was an unseen celestial god who manifested himself only periodically. His manifestation was the ATEN - the Celestial Disc, depicted as a Winged Globe.
The Canaanites could not boast of an original pantheon. They, too, acquired their cosmogony, deities, and legendary tales from elsewhere. Their direct contacts with the Sumerian sources were the Amorites.
"In the 1980's archaeologists came upon the center and capital city of the Amorites, known as Mari. At a bend of the Euphrates, where the Syrian border now cuts the river, the diggers uncovered a major city whose buildings were erected and continuously reerected, between 3000 and 2000 B.C., on foundations that date to centuries earlier. These earlier remains included a step pyramid and temples to the Sumerian deities Inanna, Ninhursag, and Enlil.
"Who were these Gods of Heaven and Earth, divine yet human, always headed by a pantheon of inner circle and twelve deities?
We have entered the temples of the Greeks, and the Aryans, the Hittites and the Hurrians, the Canaanites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. We have followed paths that took us across continents and seas, and clues that carried us over several millennia. And all the corridors of all the temples have led us to one source: Sumer.
Anu, Head of the Family of Gods.... His Symbol
The head of this family of Gods of Heaven and Earth was AN (or Anu in the Babylonian/Assyrian texts). He was the Great Father of the Gods, The King of the Gods. His realm was the expanse of the heavens, and his symbol was a star. In the Sumerian pictographic writing, the sign of a star also stood for An, for "heavens" and for "divine being," or "god" (descended of An). This fourfold of the symbol remained through the ages, as the script moved from the Sumerian pictographic to the cuneiform Akkadian, to the stylized Babylonian and Assyrian."
Symbol.- The star was an eight point star for "An = star."
An eight point star was also for "heaven", but with four of its arms (from top) to its left like a sector shape (fan).
".....Anu had a spouse ANTU.
"A tablet that belonged to an archive at Uruk enlightens us to the pomp and pageantry that accompany the arrival of Anu and his spouse on a "state visit." Because of damage to a tablet, we can read of the ceremonies only from some midpoint, when Anu and Antu were already seated in the temple's courtyard. The gods, "exactly in the same order as before" then formed a procession ahead of and behind the bearer of the scepter. The protocol then instructed:
Inanna, was one who could roam "the heavens over many lands that lie far apart - feats only possible by flying."
"...Such a capability, by Inanna as well as the other major gods, was often indicated by the ancient artists by depicting the gods - anthropomorphic in all other respects as we have seen - with wings. The wings as can be seen from numerous depictions, were not of the body - not natural wings, but rather a decorative attachment to the god's clothing.
"....Her most celebrated journey was to the Lower World, the domain of her sister Ereshkigal. The journey was not only the subject of epic tales but also of artistic depictions on cylinder seals - the latter showing the goddess with wings, to stress the fact that she flew over from Sumer to the Lower World.
"....The texts dealing with this hazardous journey describe how Inanna very meticulously put on herself seven objects prior to the start of the voyage, and how she had to give them up as she passed through the seven gates leading to her sister's abode. Seven such objects are also mentioned in other texts dealing with Inanna skyborne travels:
"Unlike the flat carvings or bas-reliefs, this life-size, three-dimensional representation of the goddess reveals interesting features about her attire. On her head she wears not a milliner's chapeau but a special helmet; protruding from it on both sides and fitted over the ears are objects that remind one of a pilot's earphones. On her neck and upper chest the goddess wears a necklace of many small (and probably precious) stones; in her hands she holds a cylindrical object which appears too thick and heavy to be a vase for holding water.
"Over a blouse of see-through material, two parallel straps run across her chest, leading back to and holding in place an unusual box of rectangular shape. The box is held tight against the back of the goddess's neck and it is firmly attached to the helmet with a horizontal strap. Whatever the box held inside must have been heavy, for the contraption is further supported by two large shoulder pads. The weigh of the box is further increased by a hose that is connected to its base by a circular clasp. The complete package of instruments - for this is what they undoubtedly were - is held in place with the aid of the two set of straps that crisscross the goddess's back and chest.
"The parallel between the seven objects required by Inanna for her aerial journeys and the dress and objects worn by the statue from Mari (and probably also the mutilated one found at Ishtar's temple in Ashur) is easily proved. We see the "measuring pendants" - the earphones - on her ears; the rows or "chains" of small stones around her neck; the "twin stones" - the two shoulder pads - on her shoulders; the "golden cylinder" in her hands, and the clasping straps that crisscross her breast.
The Nefilim.... Angels.... Emissaries.... Temples, enclosures for the "divine bird"
"....We learn that their appearance was sudden. Abraham "raised his eyes and lo and behold, there were three men standing by him." Bowing and calling them "My Lords," he pleaded with them, "Do not pass over thy servant" and prevailed on them to wash their feet, rest, and eat.
"Having done as Abraham had requested, two of the angels (the third "man" turned out to be the Lord himself) then proceeded to Sodom.
Mr. Sitchin asks a good question:
"The ancient texts also describe some vehicle used to lift aeronauts into the skies.
"....The protected enclosure was described as MU.NA.DA.TUR.TUR ("strong stone resting place of the MU"). Urukagina who ruled in Lagash, said in regard to the "divine black wind bird": "The MU that lights up as a fire I made high and strong."
"Similarly, Lu-Utu, who ruled in Umma in the third millennium B.C., constructed a place for a mu, "which in a fire comes forth, "for the god Utu, in the appointed place within his temple."
"....That a mu - an oval topped, conical object - was indeed installed in the inner, sacred enclosure of the temples of the Great Gods of Heaven and Earth can, fortunately, be proved. An ancient coin found at Byblos (the Biblical Gebal) on the Mediterranean coast of present - day Lebanon depicts the Great Temple of Ishtar."
"....Indeed, a rocket with "wings" or fins - reachable by a "ladder" - can be seen on a tablet excavated at Gezer, a town in ancient Canaan, west of Jerusalem. The double imprint of the same seal also shows a rocket resting on the ground next to a palm tree. The celestial nature or destination of the objects is attested by symbols of the Sun, Moon, and zodiacal constellations that adorn the seal."
The Nefilim.... Mu.... Shu-Mu.... Sham, or Shem....
"....Wishing to worship their gods throughout the lands, and not only at the official "house" of each deity, the ancient peoples developed the custom of setting up imitations of the god within his divine "sky chamber." Some pillars shaped to simulate the oval vehicle were erected at selected sites, and the image of the god was carved into the stone to indicate that he was within the object.
"....The Sumerians called them NA.RU ("stones that rise"). The Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians called them naru ("objects that give off light"). The Amuru called them nuras ("fiery objects"- in Hebrew, ner still means a pillar that emits light, and thus today's "candle"). In the Indo-European tongues of the Hurrians and the Hittites, the stelae were called hu-u-ashi ("fire bird of stone").
"....The realization that mu or shem in many Mesopotamian texts should be read not as a "name" but as "sky vehicle" opens the way to the understanding of the true meaning of many ancient tales, including the biblical story of the Tower of Babel.
"Mankind, presumably, did not possess at that time the technology required for such an aerospace project; the guidance and collaboration of a knowledgeable god was essential. Did such a god defied the others to help Mankind? A Sumerian seal depicts a confrontation between armed gods, apparently over the disputed construction by men of a stage tower.
"....Both the Mesopotamian texts and the biblical account impart the same moral: The flying machines were meant for the gods and not for Mankind."
"Men - assert both Mesopotamian and biblical texts - could ascend to the Heavenly Abode only upon express wish of the gods. And therein lie more tales of ascents to the heavens and even of space flights.
"We read in the Book of Ezequiel, Chapter 28 that the Lord commanded the prophet to remind the king how, perfect and wise, he was enabled by the Deity to visit with the gods:
The Construction of the Tower of Babel.
The Epic of Gilgamesh.....
"Tradition had informed him that one of his forefathers, Utnapishtim - the hero of the Deluge - had escaped death, having been taken to the Heavenly Abode together with his spouse. Gilgamesh therefore decided to reach that place and obtain from his ancestors the secret of eternal life.
"....The "distant journey" Gilgamesh undertook was, of course, his journey to the Abode of the Gods; he was accompanied by his comrade Enkidu. Their target was the Land of Tilmun, for there Gilgamesh could raise a shem for himself. The current translations employ the expected "name" where the Sumerian mu or the Akkadian shumu appear in the ancient texts; we shall, however, employ shem instead so that the term's true meaning - a "skyborne vehicle" - will come through.
"No pictorial depiction of what Gilgamesh saw has so far come to light. But a drawing found in the tomb of an Egyptian governor of a far land shows a rocket-head above ground in a place where date trees grow. The shaft of the rocket is clearly stored underground, in a man-made silo constructed of tubular segments and decorated with leopard skins....
"....We can see that the rocket contained a number of compartments. The lower one shows two men surrounded by curving tubes. Above them there are three circular panels. Comparing the size of the rocket-head - the ben-ben - to the size of the two men inside the rocket, and the people above the ground, it is evident that the rocket-head - equivalent to the Sumerian mu, the "celestial chamber" - could easily hold one or two operators or passengers.
"TIL.MUN was the name of the land to which Gilgamesh set his course. The name literally meant "land of the missiles." It was the land where the shem's were raised, a land under the authority of Utu/Shamash, a place where one could see this god "rise up to the vaults of heaven."
"And though the celestial counterpart of this member of the Pantheon of Twelve was the Sun, we suggest that his name did not mean "Sun" but was an epithet describing his functions and responsibilities. His Sumerian name Utu meant "he who brilliantly goes in." His derivate Akkadian name - Shem-Esh - was more explicit: Esh means "fire," and we know now what shem originally meant.
"Utu/Shamash was "he of the fiery rocket ships." He was, we suggest, the commander of the spaceport of the gods.
"....Etana, we are told, was designated by the gods to bring Mankind the security and prosperity that Kingship - an organized civilization - was intended to provide. But Etana it seems could not further a son who would continue the dynasty. The only known remedy was a certain known Plant of Birth that Etana could obtain only by fetching down from the heavens.
"Like Gilgamesh at a later time, Etana turned to Shamash for permission and assistance. As the epic unfolds it becomes clear that Etana was asking Shamash for a shem!
"Directing Etana to the pit where the Eagle had been placed, Shamash also informed the Eagle ahead of time of the intended mission.
"....Arriving at the mountain indicated to him by Shamash, "Etana saw the pit," and, inside it, "there the Eagle was." "At the command of valiant Shamash, "the Eagle entered into communication with Etana. Once more, Etana explained his purpose and destination; whereupon the Eagle began to instruct Etana on the procedure for "raising the Eagle from its pit." The first two attempts failed, but on the third one the Eagle was properly raised. At daybreak, the Eagle announced to Etana: "My friend ... up to the Heaven of Anu I will bear thee!"
".... As though reported by a modern astronaut watching Earth recede as his rocket ship rises, the ancient story teller describes how Earth appeared smaller and smaller to Etana:
"What or who was the Eagle who took Etana to the distant heavens?
"We cannot help associating the ancient text with the message beamed to Earth in July 1969 by Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 spacecraft: "Houston! Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed!"
"But Eagle could also denote the astronauts who manned the spacecraft. On the Apollo 11 mission, "Eagle" was also the symbol of the Astronauts themselves, worn as an emblem on their suits. Just as in the Etana tale, they, too, were "Eagles" who could fly, speak and communicate.
"How would an ancient artist have depicted the pilots of the skyships of the gods? Would he have depicted them, by some chance, as eagles? That's exactly what we have found. An Assyrian seal engraving from circa 1500 B.C. shows two "eagle-men" saluting a shem!
"....The many depictions of the Eagles clearly show that they were not monstrous "bird-men", but anthropomorphic beings wearing costumes or uniforms that gave them the appearance of eagles.
"....The Mesopotamian texts invariable present Utu/Shamash as the god in charge of the landing place of the shem's and of the Eagles. And like his subordinates he was sometimes shown wearing the full regalia of an Eagle's costume.
"The enigmatic section - one of horror of translators and theologians alike - form the beginning of chapter 6 of Genesis. It is interposed between the review of the spread of Mankind through the generations following Adam and the story of the divine disenchantment with Mankind that preceded the Deluge. It states - unequivocally - that, at that time,
The Nefilim were upon the Earth,
"....Irrespective of the theological implications, the literal and original meaning of the verses cannot be escaped: The sons of the gods who came to Earth from the heavens were the Nefilim.
THE TWELFTH PLANET
"....The Sumerians accepted the existence of such a "Heavenly Abode," a "pure place," a "primeval abode." While Enlil, Enki, and Ninhursag went to Earth and made their home upon it, their father Anu remained in the Heavenly Abode as its ruler.
"....The Gods of Heaven and Earth of the ancient Near East not only originated in the heavens but could also return to the Heavenly Abode. Anu occasionally came down to Earth on state visits; Ishtar went back to Anu at least twice. Enlil's center in Nippur was equipped as a "bond-heaven-earth." Shamash was in charge of the Eagles and the launching place of the rocket ships. Gilgamesh went up to the Place of Eternity and returned to Uruk; Adapa, too, made the trip and came back to tell about it; so did the biblical king of Tyre.
"....Two-way travel was not only possible but actually contemplated to begin with, for we are told that, having decided to establish in Sumer the Gateway of the Gods (Babili), the leader of the gods explained:
"....An Assyrian depiction of the Gateway of Anu in the Heavenly Abode confirms ancient familiarity with a celestial system such as our Sun and its planets. The Gateway is flanked by two Eagles - indicating that their services are needed to reach the Heavenly Abode. The Winged Globe - the supreme divine emblem - marks the gateway. It is flanked by the celestial symbols of the number seven and the crescent, representing (we believe) Anu flanked by Enlil and Enki.
"Where are the celestial bodies represented by these symbols? Where is the Heavenly Abode? The ancient artist answers with yet another depiction, that of a large celestial deity extending its rays to eleven smaller celestial bodies encircling it. It is a representation of a Sun, orbited by eleven planets.
"That this was not an isolated representation can be shown by reproducing other depictions on cylinder seals, like the one from the Berlin Museum of the Ancient Near East.
"....Now there is, of course, a catch to claiming that these depictions - of a Sun and eleven planets - represent our solar system, for our scholars tell us that the planetary system of which Earth is a part comprises the Sun, Earth and Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This adds up to the Sun and only ten planets (when the Moon is counted as one).
"But that is not what the Sumerians said. They claimed that our system was made up of the Sun and eleven planets (counting the Moon), and held steadfastly to the opinion that, in addition to the planets known to us today, there has been a twelfth member of the solar system - the home planet of the Nefilim.
"We shall call it the Twelfth Planet.
Uranus was discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846 and Pluto in 1930.
"Our textbooks generally credit Nicolaus Copernicus with the discovery that Earth is only one of several planets in a heliocentric (Sun-centered) system. Fearing the wrath of the Christian church for challenging Earth central position, Copernicus published his study (De revolutionibus orbium coelestium) only when on his deathbed, in 1543."
"....The heliocentric concept was only rediscovered by Copernicus; and the interesting fact is that astronomers knew more in 500 B.C. than in 500 A.D. and 1500.
"Indeed, scholars are now hard put to explain why first the later Greeks and then the Romans assumed that Earth was flat, rising above a layer of murky waters below which there lay Hades or "Hell," when some of the evidence left by Greek astronomers from earlier times indicates that they knew otherwise."
"....Hipparchus, in fact, confirmed in his writings that his studies were based on knowledge accumulated and verified over many millennia. He named as his mentors "Babylonian astronomers of Erech, Borsippa, and Babylon." Geminus of Rhodes named the "Chaldeans" (the ancient Babylonians) as the discoverers of the exact motions of the Moon. The historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the first century B.C. confirmed the exactness of Mesopotamian astronomy; he stated that "the Chaldeans named the planets ... in the center of their system was the Sun, the greatest light, of which the planets were 'offspring,' reflecting the Sun's position and shine."
"The acknowledged source of Greek astronomical knowledge was, then, Chaldea; invariable, those earlier Chaldeans possessed greater and more accurate knowledge than the peoples that followed them. For generations, throughout the ancient world, the name "Chaldean" was synonymous with "stargazers," "astronomers."
"....Many such later texts were, to be sure, more astrological than astronomical in nature. The heavens and the movements of the heavenly bodies appeared to be a prime preoccupation of mighty kings, temple priests, and the people of the land in general; the purpose of the stargazing seemed to be to find in the heavens an answer to the course of affairs on Earth: war, peace, abundance, famine.
"....The heliacal system - the system still in use today, which measures the rising and the setting of stars and planets in Earth's skies relative to the Sun.
A Radiant Celestial Body....
"The Sumerians consider the New Year to begin at the exact moment when the Sun crossed the Spring equinox. Professor Stephen Langdon (Tablets from the Archives of Drenhem) found that records left by Dungi, a ruler of Ur circa 2400 B.C., show that the Nippurian calendar selected a certain celestial body by whose setting against the sunset it was possible to determine the exact moment of the New Year's arrival. This, he concluded, was done "perhaps 2,000 years before the era of Dungi" - that is, circa 4400 B.C.!
"....The Akkadian, Hurrian, Hittite, and other literary masterpieces of the ancient Near East, being translations or versions of Sumerian originals, were replete with Sumerian loanwords pertaining to celestial bodies and phenomena.
"This pertains not only to the very sophisticated astronomical methods that were used - who in ancient Sumer really needed to establish a celestial equator, for example? - but also to a variety of elaborate texts that dealt with the measurement of distances between stars.
"One of these texts, known as AO.6478, the twenty six major stars visible along the line we now call the Tropic of Cancer, and gives distances between them as measured in three different ways:
"Capable of space travel, arriving on Earth from another planet, roaming Earth's skies - they were the only ones who could, and did, possess at the dawn of Mankind's civilization the astronomical knowledge that required millennia to develop, the sophisticated methods and mathematics and concepts for an advance astronomy and the need to teach human scribes to copy and record meticulously table upon table of distances in the heavens, order of stars and groups of stars, heliacal risings and settings, a complex Sun-Moon calendar, and the rest of the remarkable knowledge of both Heaven and Earth.
Mr. Sitchin concluded, after the following text (K.3558):
"....Teaching humanity the true nature of Earth and the heavens, the Nefilim informed the ancient astronomers-priests not only of the planets beyond Saturn but also of the existence of the most important planet, the one from which they came:
THE EPIC OF CREATION
"....The Apollo 16 astronauts found on the Moon rocks (called breccias) that result from the shattering of solid rock and its rewelding together by extreme and sudden heat. When and how were these rocks shattered, then re-fused? Other surface materials on the Moon are rich in rare radioactive potassium and phosphorus, materials that on Earth are deep down inside.
"Putting such findings together, scientists are now certain that the Moon and Earth, formed of roughly the same elements at about the same time, evolved as separate celestial bodies.
"In the opinion of the scientists of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Moon evolved "normally" for its first 500 million years."
"....The Sumerians, then, were right to depict the Moon as a celestial body in its own right...."
"....Because of its unusual characteristics, it has been suggested that this "misfit" might have started its celestial life as a satellite that somehow escaped its master and went into orbit around the Sun on its own."
"This, as we shall soon see, is indeed what happened - according to the Sumerian texts.
"....On the first day of the nineteenth century, the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi discovered at the exact indicated distance a very small planet (485 miles across), which he named Ceres...."
Mr. Sitchin then goes to mention about the vast literature existing, comparing the Mesopotamian text of the Chaldean Genesis with Biblical accounts of Genesis. Being of extreme importance are "The Seven Tablets of Creation."
"....As more tablets and fragments were found and translated, it became evident that the text was not a simple literary work: It was the most hallowed historical-religious epic of Babylon, read as part of the New Year rituals.
"....There is enough evidence to show that the Babylonian version of the epic was a masterful political-religious forgery of earlier Sumerian versions, in which Anu, Enlil, and Ninurta were the heroes.
"....Most scholars see it as a philosophical work...."
"....But why not take the epic at face value, as nothing more nor less the statement of cosmologic facts as known to the Sumerians, as told them by the Nefilim?
"The stage on which the celestial drama of Enuma Elish unfolds is the primeval universe. The celestial actors are the ones who create as well as the ones being created."
The space between Apsu and Tiamat (also known as the Virgin Mother of the first Divine Trinity) was not void, it was filled with the primordial elements, the primordial waters. These "waters" "commingled" and a pair of celestial gods - planets - were formed in the space between Apsu and Tiamat.
"Where were the Earth and the Moon? They were yet to be created, products of the forthcoming collision.
MARDUK ... The Arrival ...
"....By depriving the Sun of its creativity - stopping the process of emitting more energy and matter to form additional planets - the gods (planets) brought temporary peace to the solar system.
"....How long was it before the celestial peace was broken once more? The epic does not say. But it does continue, with little pause, and raises the curtain to Act III:
"....As Marduk neared the other planets, "they heaped upon him their awesome flashes," and he shone brightly, "clothed with the halo of ten gods." His approach thus stirred electrical and other emissions from the other members of the solar system. And a single word here confirms our decipherment of the Creation epic: Ten celestial bodies awaited him - the Sun and only nine other planets. And as Marduk, still in a very plastic stage as it must have been, passes Ea/Neptune, the gravitational pull bulged one side. Later, as he passes Anu/Uranus, matter tore off and four satellites were formed for Marduk.
"....The approach of Marduk soon began to disturb Tiamat and the inner planets (Mars, Venus, Mercury).
"....The gravitational pull of the large approaching planet soon began to tear away parts of Tiamat. From her midst there emerged eleven "monsters" ....satellites who separated themselves from her body and "marched at the side of Tiamat."
"....Of particular importance to the epic and to Mesopotamian cosmogony was Tiamat's chief satellite, who was named KINGU, "the first born among the gods who formed her assembly."
Finally Marduk and Tiamat confront each other.
"But the two planets did not collide, a fact of cardinal astronomical importance: It was the satellites of Marduk that smashed into Tiamat, and not Marduk himself. They "distended" Tiamat's body, made in her a wide cleavage.
"....The first encounter between Marduk and Tiamat left her fissured and lifeless; but her final fate was still to be determined by future encounters between the two. Kingu, leader of Tiamat's satellites, was also to be dealt with separately. But the fate of the other ten, smaller satellites of Tiamat was determine at once:
"By doing so we offer an explanation to yet another puzzle of our solar system - the phenomenon of the comets.
"Having "vanquished" Tiamat, Marduk sailed on in the heavens, out into space, around the Sun, and back to retrace his passage by the other planets....
"....Then his new orbital path returned Marduk to the scene of his triumph, "to strengthen his hold on the vanquished gods, "Tiamat and Kingu."
"Completing his first - ever orbit around the Sun, Marduk "then returned to Tiamat, whom he had subdued."
"Marduk himself now hit the defeated planet, splitting Tiamat in two, severing her "skull" or upper part. Then another of Marduk's satellites, the one called North Wind, crashed into the separated half. The heavy blow carried this part - destined to become Earth - to an orbit where no planet had been orbiting before.
"Earth had been created!
"The lower part had another fate: on the second orbit, Marduk himself hit it, smashing it to pieces.
"The pieces of this broken half were hammered to become a "bracelet" in the heavens, acting as a screen between the inner planets and the outer planets. They were stretched out into a "great band."
"Every puzzle that we have mentioned is answered by the "Epic of Creation" as we have deciphered it. Moreover, we also have the answer to the question of why Earth's continents are concentrated on one side of it and a deep cavity (the Pacific Ocean's bed) exists on the opposite side...."
"BIBLICAL SCHOLARS NOW RECOGNIZE THAT THE HEBREW TEHOM ("WATERY DEEP") STEMS FROM TIAMAT; THAT TEHOM-RABA MEANS "GREAT TIAMAT," AND THAT THE BIBLICAL UNDERSTANDING OF PRIMEVAL EVENTS IS BASED UPON THE SUMERIAN COSMOLOGIC EPICS. IT SHOULD ALSO BE CLEAR THAT FIRST AND FOREMOST AMONG THESE PARALLELS ARE THE OPENING VERSES OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS, DESCRIBING HOW THE WIND OF THE LORD HOVERED OVER THE WATERS OF TEHOM, AND HOW THE LIGHTNING OF THE LORD (MARDUK IN THE BABYLONIAN VERSION) LIT THE DARKNESS OF SPACE AS IT HIT AND SPLIT TIAMAT, CREATING EARTH AND THE RAKIA (LITERALLY, "THE HAMMERED BRACELET"). THIS CELESTIAL BAND (HITHERTO TRANSLATED AS "FIRMAMENT") IS CALLED "THE HEAVEN."
"....As part of the new celestial order upon Earth, Marduk "made the divine Moon appear ... designated him to mark the night, define the days every month....
"....Earth is Tiamat reincarnated. The Moon is called Earth's "protector"; that is exactly what Tiamat called Kingu, her chief satellite.
"....Marduk, then, did not destroy Kingu. Shrunk to a smaller size, Kingu remained a "god" - a planetary member of our solar system. Without an orbit he could only become a satellite again. As Tiamat's upper part was thrown into a new orbit (as the new planet Earth), we suggest, Kingu was pulled along. Our Moon, we suggest, is Kingu, Tiamat's former satellite.
"The puzzles of our solar system - the oceanic cavities upon Earth, the devastation upon the Moon, the reverse orbits of the comets, the enigmatic phenomena of Pluto - all are perfectly answered by the Mesopotamian Creation epic, as deciphered by us.
"Having thus "constructed the stations" for the planets, (orbits), Marduk took for himself "station Nibiru," and "crossed the heavens and surveyed" the new solar system. It was now made up of twelve celestial bodies, with twelve Great Gods as their counterparts.
Marduk = Nibiru .... Planet of Crossing ....
"The actual elevation of Marduk to the status of "King of the Gods" upon Earth was thus accompanied by assigning to him, as his celestial counterpart, the planet of the Nefilim, the Twelfth Planet. As "Lord of the Celestial Gods [the planets]" Marduk was thus also "King of the Heavens."
"The "Epic of Creation" clearly states that Marduk was an invader from outside the solar system, passing by the outer planets (including Saturn and Jupiter) before colliding with Tiamat. The Sumerians called the planet NIBIRU, the "planet of crossing."
"If Marduk's orbit takes it where Tiamat once was, relatively near us (between Mars and Jupiter), why have we not yet seen this planet, which is supposedly large and bright?
"....It thus occurred to Franz Kugler (Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babylon) that Marduk was a fast-moving celestial body, orbiting in a great elliptical path just like a comet.
"Such an elliptical path, focused on the Sun as a center of gravity, has an apogee - the point farthest from the Sun, where the return flight begins - and a perigee - the point nearest to the Sun, where the return to outer space begins.
"We find that two such "bases" are indeed associated with Marduk in the Mesopotamian texts. The Sumerian texts described the planet as going from AN.UR ("Heaven's base") to E.NUN ("lordly abode").
"Following the teaching of their Sumerian forefather, Abraham of Ur, the ancient Hebrews also associated their supreme deity with the supreme planet...."
"The Book of Job, having described the collision, contains these significant verses telling us where the lordly planet had gone:
"....Central to the religious beliefs and astronomy of the ancient world was the conviction that the Twelfth Planet, the "Planet of the Gods" remained within the solar system and that its grand orbit returned it periodically to Earth's vicinity. The pictographic sign of the Twelfth Planet, the "Planet of Crossing," was a cross. This cuneiform sign, which also meant "Anu" and "divine" (a cross with a triangle on top arm, and two triangles on left arm touching each other by the angles) evolved in the Semitic languages to the letter tav, (a slanted cross with lower arm longer than the other three) which meant "the sign."
The reader is reminded, that the Hebrews associated their supreme deity with the supreme planet. At this point, this becomes most important to understand what the Biblical records are talking about: The Twelfth Planet, mainly, in the prophetic context.
".... Many of the texts dealing with the planet's arrival were omen texts prophesying the effect the event would have upon Earth and Mankind....
"....Like the Mesopotamian savants, the Hebrew prophets considered the time of the planet's approaching Earth and becoming visible to Mankind as ushering in a new era. The similarities between the Mesopotamian omens of peace and prosperity that would accompany the Planet of the Throne of Heaven, and the biblical prophesies of the peace and justice that would settle upon Earth after the Day of the Lord, can best be expressed by the words of Isaiah:
"Mesopotamian texts exalted the planet's radiance and suggested that it could be seen even at daytime: "visible at sunrise, disappearing from view at sunset." A cylinder seal, found at Nippur, depicts a group of plowmen looking up with awe as the Twelfth Planet (depicted with its cross symbol) is visible in the skies.
"The ancient peoples not only expected the periodic arrival of the Twelfth Planet but also charted its advancing course.
"....Among the many Mesopotamian texts that dealt with the subject, one is quite clear:
"The planet's periodic appearance and disappearance from Earth's view confirms the assumption of its permanence in solar orbit."
"Abydenus, a disciple of Aristotle, also quoted Berossus in terms of ten pre-Diluvial rulers whose total reign numbered 120 shar's. He made clear that these rulers and their cities were located in ancient Mesopotamia:
LANDING ON PLANET EARTH
Landing on Planet Earth....The Symbol of the Seven Dots.... The Seven Stations....
"No wonder, then, that when they landed on Earth, a good deal of the knowledge they brought with them concerned astronomy and celestial mathematics. The Nefilim, "Gods of Heaven" upon Earth, taught Man to look up unto the heavens - just as Yahweh urged Abraham to do.
"....The planet of Enlil was Earth. Earth - to the Nefilim - was the seventh planet.
"....Our astronomy is geared to the notion that Earth is the third planet - which, indeed, it is if one begins the count from the center of our system, the Sun.
"But to someone nearing our solar system from the outside, the first planet to be encountered would be Pluto, the second Neptune, the third Uranus - not Earth. Fourth would be Saturn; fifth Jupiter; sixth Mars.
"And Earth would be seventh."
"No one but the Nefilim, travelling to Earth past Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars could have considered Earth "the seventh."
"....Earth is not the only planet whose numerical position in the solar system was represented symbolically. Ample evidence shows that Venus was depicted as an eight-pointed star: Venus is the eighth planet, following Earth, when counted from the outside. The eight-pointed star also stood for the goddess Ishtar, whose planet was Venus.
"Many cylinder seals and other graphic relics depict Mars as the sixth planet. A cylinder seal shows the god associated with Mars (originally Nergal, then Nabu), seated on a throne under a six-pointed "star" as his symbol. Other symbols on the seal show the Sun, much in the same manner we would depict it today; the Moon; and the cross, symbol of the "Planet of Crossing," the Twelfth Planet.
THE SEVEN STATIONS:
"Logically - and in fact - they viewed the system in two parts. The one zone of concern was the zone of flight, which embraced the space occupied by the seven planets extending from Pluto to Earth. The second group, beyond the zone of navigation, was made of four celestial bodies - Moon, Venus, Mercury and the Sun. In astronomy and divine genealogy, the two groups were considered separate.
"....In the skies, each group was supposed to stay in its celestial zone, and the Sumerians assumed that there was a "celestial bar" keeping the two groups (of "Four" and "Seven") apart.
"The Four were located in a celestial zone the Sumerians termed GIR.HE.A ("celestial waters where rockets are confused"), MU.HE ("confusion of spacecraft"), or UL.HE ("band of confusion"). These puzzling terms make sense once we realize that the Nefilim considered the heavens of the solar system in terms of their space travel.
"Only recently, the engineers of Comsat (Communications Satellite Corporation) discovered that the Sun and Moon "trick" satellites and "shut them off." Earth satellites could be "confused" by showers of particles of solar flares or by changes in the Moon's reflection of infrared rays. The Nefilim, too, were aware that rocket ships or "spacecraft entered a "zone of confusion" once they passed Earth and neared Venus, Mercury, and the Sun.
"....First to be encountered by the Nefilim approaching the solar system was Pluto. The Mesopotamian lists name this planet SHU.PA ("supervisor of the SHU"), the planet that guards the approach to the Supreme Part of the solar system.
"....Next to the Shupa was IRU ("loop"). At Neptune, the spacecraft of the Nefilim probably commenced its wide curve or "loop" toward its final target. Another list named the planet, HUM.BA, which connotes "swampland vegetation." When we probe Neptune someday, will we discover that its persistent association with waters is due to the watery swamps the Nefilim saw upon it?
"Uranus was called Kakkab Shanamma ("planet which is the double"). Uranus is truly the twin of Neptune in size and appearance. A Sumerian list calls it EN.TI.MASH.SIG ("planet of bright greenish life"). Is Uranus, too, a planet on which swampy vegetation abounded?
"Beyond Uranus looms Saturn, a giant planet (nearly ten times Earth's size) distinguished by its rings, which extend more than twice as far out as the planet's diameter. Armed with a tremendous gravitational pull and the mysterious rings, Saturn must have posed many dangers to the Nefilim and their spacecraft. This may well explain why they called the fourth planet TAR.GALLU ("the great destroyer"). Throughout the ancient Near East, the planet represented the punisher of the unjust. Were these names expressions of fear or references to actual space accidents?
"....They called the fifth planet Barbaru, Jupiter, ("bright one") as well as SAG.ME.GAR ("great one, where the space suits are fastened"). Another name for Jupiter SIB.ZI.AN.NA ("true guide in the heavens"), also described its probable role in the journey to Earth: it was the signal for curving into the difficult passage between Jupiter and Mars, and the entry into the dangerous zone of the asteroid belt. From the epithets, it would seem that it was at this point that the Nefilim put on their me's, their spacesuits.
"Mars, appropriately, was called UTU.KA.GAB.A ("light established at the gate of the waters") reminding us of the Sumerian and biblical descriptions of the asteroid belt as the celestial "bracelet" separating the "upper waters" from the "lower waters" of the solar system. More precisely, Mars was referred to as Shelibbu ("one near the center" of the solar system).
"The central object in this ancient drawing simulates the symbol of the Twelfth Planet, the Winged Globe. Yet it looks different: It is more mechanical, more manufactured than natural. Its "wings" look almost exactly like the solar panels with which American spacecraft are provided to convert the Sun's energy to electricity. The two antennas cannot be mistaken.
"The circular craft, with its crownlike top and extended wings and antennas, is located in the heavens, between Mars (the six-pointed star) and Earth and its Moon.
"On Earth, a deity extends his hand in greeting to an astronaut still out in the heavens, near Mars. The astronaut is shown wearing a helmet with a visor and a breastplate. The lower part of his suit is like that of a "fish-man" - a requirement, perhaps, in case of an emergency splashdown in the ocean. In one hand he holds an instrument; the other hand reciprocates the greeting from Earth.
"And then, cruising on, there was Earth, the seventh planet.
Earth, the Seventh Planet as Counted from Pluto, the way the Nefilim Would Count.... Enlil's Flight Charts....
"....Paralleling the seven stations of Marduk's journey, the planet's names also bespeak a space flight. The land at the journey's end was the seventh planet, Earth.
"We may never know whether, countless years from now, someone on another planet will find and understand the message drawn on the plaque attached to Pioneer 10. Likewise, one would think it futile to expect to find on Earth such a plaque in reverse - a plaque conveying to earthlings information regarding the location and the route from the Twelfth Planet.
"Yet such extraordinary evidence does exist.
Despite damaged areas on the disc, still several areas remained clear to be able to be deciphered; after several personalities tried to interpret it, still presented a problem, a repetition of syllables in the Assyrian language:
na na na na a na a na nu (along the descending line)
"The line incline at 45 degrees appears to indicate the line of a spaceship's descent from a point which is "high high high high," through "vapor clouds" and a lower one that is vaporless, toward the horizon point, where the skies and the ground meet.
"In the skies near the horizontal line, the instructions to the astronauts makes sense: they are to "set set set" their instruments for the final approach; then, as they near the ground, "rockets rockets" are fired to slow the craft, which apparently should be raised ("piled up") before reaching the landing point because it has to pass over a high or rugged terrain ("mountain mountain").
"Based on complex technical data, as well as hints in Mesopotamian texts, it appears that the Nefilim adopted for their Earth missions the same approach NASA adopted for the Moon missions: When the principal spaceship neared the target planet (Earth), it went into orbit around that planet without actually landing. Instead, a smaller craft was released from the mother ship and performed the actual landing.
"....The landing craft had to rejoin its mother ship, which then had to fire up its engines and accelerate to extremely high speeds, for it had to catch up with the Twelfth Planet, which by then was passing its perigee between Mars and Jupiter at its top orbital speed."
"....Dr. (Amnon Sitchin) has calculated that there were three points in the spaceship's orbit of Earth that lent themselves to a thrust toward the Twelfth Planet. The three alternatives offered the Nefilim a choice of catching up with the Twelfth Planet within 1.1 to 1.6 Earth years.
"Suitable terrain, guidance from Earth, and perfect coordination with the home planet were required for successful arrivals, landings, take offs, and departures from Earth.
"We shall see, the Nefilim met all these requirements.
Cities of the Gods.... As Above so Below.... E.RI.DU, First Settlement....
"The "Epic of Creation" informs us that the "gods" came to Earth following a deliberate decision by their leader. The Babylonian version, attributing the decision to Marduk, explains that he waited until Earth's soil dried and hardened sufficiently to permit landing and construction operations. Then Marduk announced his decision to the group of astronauts:
"Marduk then explained his purpose:
When from the Heavens
"...As the Nefilim searched for an additional "home," Earth must have struck them favorably. Its blue hues indicated it had life-sustaining water and air; its browns disclosed firm land; its greens, vegetation and the basis for animal life. Yet when the Nefilim family voyaged to Earth, it must have looked somewhat different from the way it does to our astronauts today. For when the Nefilim first came to Earth, Earth was in the midst of an ice age - a glacial period that was on the icing and de-icing phases of Earth's climate:
"....The attention of the Nefilim, now we know, focused on three major river systems and their plains: The Nile, the Indus, and the Tigris-Euphrates. Each of these river basins was suitable for early colonization; each, in time, became the center of an ancient civilization.
"....The Nefilim, judging by the Sumerian practice and records, made extensive use of petroleum and its derivatives; it stands to reason that in their search for the most suitable habitat on Earth, the Nefilim would prefer a site rich in petroleum.
"....The Land of the Two Rivers, Mesopotamia, was doubtless put in first place. Some of the world's richest oil fields stretch from the tip of the Persian Gulf to the mountains where the Tigris and Euphrates originate.
"The Book of Genesis describes God's abode on Earth - Eden - as a place of temperate climate...... "It was a place that drew its waters from a network of four rivers....
"While opinions regarding the identity of the first two rivers, Pishon ("abundant") and Gihon ("which gushes forth") are inconclusive, there is no uncertainty regarding the other two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates....
"....The biblical name Eden is of Mesopotamian origin, stemming from the Akkadian Edinu, meaning "plain." We recall that the "divine" title of the ancient gods was DIN.GIR ("the righteous/just one of the rockets"). A Sumerian name for the god's abode, E.DIN, would have meant "home of the righteous ones" - a fitting description.
"In Mesopotamia they established their very first settlement on our planet. They named it E.RI.DU ("house in far away built"). What an appropriate name"!
Earth Station I....Work on the Land.... Nippur, Mission Control Site .... Sophisticated Instruments and Weapons....
"....A Sumerian text, believed to have been the original of the Akkadian "Deluge," relates the following regarding five of the first seven cities:
Only part of the text given here:
"This god's two names - EN.KI ("lord of firm ground") and E.A ("whose house is water") - were most appropriate.
Some of the works performed on the land and water were:
Him who set net so no fish escapes,
Enkimdu, the one of the ditch and dike,
Him whose . . . mold directs,
"Interesting light is shed on the subject as we examine the astronomical evidence.
"....Larsa launched a new phase in the settlement of Earth by the Nefilim. It marked the decision to proceed with the tasks for which they had come to Earth, which required the shipping to Earth of more "manpower," tools, and equipment, and the return of valuable cargoes to the Twelfth Planet."
"....From Larsa Enlil proceeded to establish a "Mission Control Center" - a sophisticated command post from which the Nefilim from Earth could coordinate space journeys to and from their home planet.
"....The site Enlil selected for this purpose, known for millennia as Nippur, was named by him NIBRU.KI ("Earth's crossing").
Sophisticated instruments in Nippur:
The Spaceport at Sippar....The ancient symbol of "Target"
"Completing the list of the first seven cities of the Gods and the correspondence with the twelve zodiac constellations was Larak, where Enlil put his son Ninurta in command. The city list calls him PA.BIL.SAG ("great protector"); it is the same name by which the constellation Sagitarius was called.
"It would be unrealistic to assume that the first seven Cities of the Gods were established haphazardly. These "gods" who were capable of space travel, located the first settlements in accordance with a definite plan, serving a vital need: to be able to land on Earth and to leave Earth for their own planet.
"What was the master plan?
"As we searched for an answer, we asked ourselves a question: What is the origin of Earth's astronomical and astrological symbol, a circle bisected by a right-angle cross - the symbol we use to signify "target."
The symbol goes back to the origin of astronomy and astrology in Sumer and is identical with the Egyptian hieroglyphic sign for "place."
"Is this a coincidence, or significant evidence? Did the Nefilim land on Earth by superimposing on its image or map some kind of "target"?
"Could astronauts and materials be brought there without too much difficulty? The answer was Yes.
"Was there a nearby source of energy, of fuel for light and power? The answer was an emphatic Yes.
"The bend in the Euphrates River where Sippar was to be established was on of the richest known sources in antiquity of surface bitumens, petroleum products that seeped up through natural wells and could be collected from the surface without any deep digging or drilling.
"In Near Eastern languages, the name, Sippar, means "bird." Sippar was the place where the Eagles would come to nest.
"How would the space shuttles glide down to Sippar?
"It brings to mind the planisphere that described the flight path and procedures, which was based on 45-degree segments.
"...This we believe, was the master plan of the Nefilim. Having selected the best location for their spaceport (Sippar), they laid out the other settlements in a pattern outlining the vital flight path to it. In the center they placed Nippur, where the "bond Heaven-Earth" was located"
View of satellite Eureka as it flies over Cape Canaveral (Kennedy Space Center), taken from shuttle Atlantis.
It reminds of what is found in The 12th Planet:
Ark of the Covenant.... "Black Boxes" .... Ziggurats....
Mr. Sitchin takes times to explain the many instruments the Sumerians had possessed in their Spaceport and at the "Mission Control" in Nippur. Some of these instruments bring to mind the Ark of the Covenant.
Mr. Sitchin comments:
"The implication that the Ark of the Covenant was principally a communication box, electrically operated, is enhanced by the instructions concerning its portability. It was to be carried by means of wooden staffs passed through four golden rings. No one was to touch the chest proper; and when one Israelite did touch it he was killed instantly - as if by a charge of high-voltage electricity.
"Such apparently supernatural equipment - which made it possible to communicate with a deity though the deity was physically somewhere else - became objects of veneration, "sacred cult symbols." Temples at Lagash, Ur, Mari, and other ancient sites included among their devotional objects "eye idols." The most outstanding example was found at an "eye temple" at Tell Brak, in northwestern Mesopotamia. This fourth-millennium temple was so named not only because hundreds of "eye" symbols were unearthed there but mainly because the temple's inner sanctum had only one altar, on which a huge stone "double eye" was displayed.
"In all probability, it was a simulation of the actual divine object - Ninurta's "terrible eye," or the one at Enlil's Mission Control Center at Nippur, about which the ancient scribe reported: "His raised eye scans the land ... His raised Beam searches the land."
"....Even scholars who have approached the subject without our "space" interpretation could not escape the conclusion that the ziggurats had some purpose other than to make the god's abode a "high rise" building. Samuel N. Kramer summed up the scholastic consensus: The ziggurat, the stagetower, which became the hallmark of Mesopotamian temple architecture ... was intended to serve as a connecting link, both real and symbolic, between the gods in heaven and the mortals on earth.
"We have shown, however, that the function of these structures was to connect the gods in Heaven with the gods - not the mortals - on Earth"
"The assertion, first recorded and then transmitted by the Sumerians, that "Man" was created by the Nefilim, appears at first sight to clash both with the theory of evolution and with the Judeo-Christian tenets based on the Bible. But in fact, the information contained in the Sumerian texts - and only that information - can affirm the validity of the theory of evolution and the truth of the biblical tale - and show that there really is no conflict at all between the two.
"....The Sumerian texts state that when the Nefilim first came to Earth, the arts of grain cultivation, fruit planting, and cattle raising had not yet extended to Earth. The biblical account likewise places the creation of Man in the sixth "day" of phase of the evolutionary process....
"....All the Sumerian texts assert that the gods created Man to do their work. Putting the explanation in words uttered by Marduk, the Creation epic reports the decision:
"....In the Sumerian versions, the decision to create Man was adopted by the gods in their Assembly. Significantly, the Book of Genesis - purportedly exalting the achievements of a sole Deity - uses the plural Elohim (literally, "deities") to denote "God," and reports an astonishing remark:
And Elohim said:
"Since the biblical story of Creation, like the other tales of beginnings in Genesis, stems from Sumerian origins, the answer is obvious. Condensing the many gods into a Supreme Deity, the biblical tale is but an edited version of the Sumerian reports of the discussions in the Assembly of the Gods.
"The Old Testament took pains to make clear that Man was neither a god nor from the heavens. "The Heavens are the Heavens of the Lord, unto Mankind Earth He hath given." The new being was called "the Adam" because he was created of the "adama," the Earth's soil. He was, in other words, "the Earthling."
"Lacking only certain "knowing" and a divine span of life, the Adam was in all other respects created in the image (selem) and likeness (dmut) of his Creator(s). The use of both terms in the texts was meant to leave no doubt that
"But in this very simplicity lies a great mystery. How could a new creature possibly be a virtual physical, mental, and emotional replica of the Nefilim? How, indeed, was Man created?
"....The Christian world had been jostled earlier when, from 1788 on, noted geologists had begun to express their belief that Earth was of great antiquity, much, much greater than the roughly 5,500 years of the Hebrew calendar. Nor was the notion of evolution as such the explosive: Earlier scholars had noted such a process, and Greek scholars as far back as the fourth century B.C. compiled data on the evolution of animal and plant life.
"Darwin's shattering bombshell was the conclusion that all living things - Man included - were products of evolution. Man, contrary to the then-held belief, was not generated spontaneously.
"....Evolution cannot account for the appearance of Homo sapiens, which happened virtually overnight in terms of the millions of years evolution requires, and with no evidence of earlier stages that would indicate a gradual change from Homo erectus.
"THE HOMINID OF THE GENUS HOMO IS A PRODUCT OF EVOLUTION. BUT HOMO SAPIENS IS THE PRODUCT OF SOME SUDDEN, REVOLUTIONARY EVENT. HE APPEARED INEXPLICABLY SOME 300,000 YEARS AGO, MILLIONS OF YEARS TOO SOON."
"The scholars have no explanation, but we do. The Sumerian and Babylonian texts do. The Old Testament does.
"Homo sapiens - modern Man - was brought about by the ancient gods.
"....As we have already shown, the orbit of the Nefilim's planet equaled a shar, or 3,600 Earth years. Forty shars, or 144,000 Earth years, after their landing, the Anunnaki protested, "No more!" If the Nefilim first landed on Earth, as we have concluded, some 450,000 years ago, then the creation of Man took place some 300,000 years ago!
"The Nefilim did not create the mammals or the primates or the hominids. "The Adam" of the Bible was not the genus Homo, but the being who is our ancestor - the first Homo sapiens. It is modern Man as we know him that the Nefilim created."
"The key to understand this crucial fact lies in the tale of a slumbering Enki, aroused to be informed that the gods had decided to form an adamu, and that it was his task to find the means. He replied:
"Here, then, is the answer to the puzzle: The Nefilim did not "create" Man out of nothing; rather, they took an existing creature and manipulated it, to "bind upon it" the "image of the gods.
"....Faced with the need for manpower, resolved to obtain a Primitive Worker, the Nefilim saw a ready-made solution: to domesticate a suitable animal.
"The animal was available - but Homo erectus posed a problem. On the one hand, he was too intelligent and wild to become simply a docile beast of work. On the other hand, he was not really suited to the task.... He needed enough cleverness and understanding to be an obedient and useful "amelu" - a serf.
"....Observing the various forms of life on Earth, the Nefilim and their chief scientist, Ea, needed little time to realize what had happened: During the celestial collision, their planet had seeded Earth with its life. Therefore, the being that was available was really akin to the Nefilim - though in a less evolved form.
"The process that Ea recommended in order to achieve a quick evolutionary advancement of Homo erectus was, we believe, genetic manipulation.
"....It is quite conceivable that before resorting to the creation of a being in their own image, the Nefilim attempted to come up with a "manufactured servant" by experimenting with other alternatives: the creation of a hybrid ape-man-animal. Some of these artificial creatures may have survived for a while but were certainly unable to reproduce....
"Sumerian texts, too, speak of deformed humans created by Enki and the Mother Goddess (Ninhursag), in the course of their efforts to fashion a perfect Primitive Worker.
"....But finally the perfect Man was achieved, the one Enki named Adapa; the Bible, Adam; our scholars, Homo sapiens. This being was so much akin to the gods that one text even went so far as to point out that the Mother Goddess gave to her creature, Man, "a skin as the skin of a god" - a smooth, hairless body, quite different from that of the shaggy ape-man.
"With this final product, the Nefilim were genetically compatible with the daughters of Man and able to marry them and have children by them. But such compatibility could exist only if Man had developed from the same "seed of life" as the Nefilim. This, indeed, is what ancient texts attest to.
"....Called upon to fashion a man, the Mother Goddess "Washed her hands, pinched off clay, mixed it in the steppe." (It is fascinating to note here the sanitary precautions taken by the goddess. She "washed her hands." We encounter such clinical measures and procedures in other creation texts as well).
"Following the mixing of the "blood" and "clay," the childbearing phase would complete the bestowal of a divine "imprint" on the creature.
"Scholars have surmised that references to Adapa as a "son" of Ea implied that the god loved this human so much that he adopted him. But in the same text Anu refers to Adapa as "the human offspring of Enki." It appears that the involvement of Enki's spouse in the process of creating Adapa, the "model Adam," did create some genealogical relationship between the new Man and his god: It was Ninki who was pregnant with Adapa!
"Ninki blessed the new being and presented it to Ea."
"....Once Adapa/Adam proved to be the right creature, he was used as the genetic model or "mold" for the creation of duplicates, and those duplicates were not only male but male and female. As we showed earlier, the biblical "rib" from which Woman was fashioned was a play on words on the Sumerian TI ("rib" and "life") - confirming that Eve was made of Adam's "life's essence."
But Adam had duplicates, and Mr. Sitchin provides the several verses from texts where it is indicated how 14 female were used to deposit the "mixed clay" in their womb. There were surgical procedures, with hygienic measures.
How was the Creation of Man accomplished?
"The purpose of mixing this divine element thoroughly with the earthly element was also spelled out:
"....Te evidence of the ancient texts, Mesopotamian as well as biblical, suggests that the process adopted for merging two sets of genes - those of a god and those of Homo erectus - involved the use of male genes as the divine element and female genes as the earthly element. Repeatedly asserting that the Deity created Adam in his image and in his likeness, the Book of Genesis later describes the birth of Adam's son Seth in the following words:
"....If the "clay" onto which the godly element was mixed was an earthly element - as all texts insist - then the only possible conclusion is that the male sperm of a god - his genetic material - was inserted into the egg of an ape-woman!
"The Akkadian term for the "clay" - or, rather, "molding clay" - is tit. But its original spelling was TI.IT ("that which is with life"). In Hebrew, tit means "mud"; but its synonym is bos, which share a root with bisa ("marsh") and besa ("egg").
"The story of Creation is replete with plays on words. We have seen the double and triple meanings of Adam-adama-adamtu-dam. The epithet for the Mother Goddess, NIN.TI, meant both "lady of life" and "lady of the rib." Why not, then, bos-bisa-besa ("clay-mud-egg") as a play of words for the female ovum?
"....The texts make abundantly clear that while Ea built a brick house by the water in Eridu, in the Abzu (southern Africa) he built a house adorned with precious stones and silver. It was there that his creature, Man, originated.
"One can even conclude from the various texts that the creation of Man caused a rift among the gods. It would appear that at least at first the new Primitive Workers were confined to the Land of Mines. As a result, the Anunnaki who were toiling in Sumer proper were denied the benefits of the new manpower.
The "Knowing" of Adam and Eve....
Explaining that the Adam was created by the Deity Yahweh, and the placing of the two Trees, the last five verses mention:
"The idyllic picture soon gave way to dramatic developments, which biblical scholars and theologians call the Fall of Man. It is a tale of unheeded divine commandments, divine lies, a wily (but truth-telling) Serpent, punishment, and exile.
"Appearing from nowhere, the Serpent challenged God's solemn warnings.
"....Reading and rereading the concise yet precise tale, (the discussion of the Serpent, Adam and Eve), one cannot help wondering what the whole confrontation was about. Prohibited under threat of death from even touching the Fruit of Knowing, the two Earthlings were persuaded to go ahead an eat the stuff, which would make them "knowing" as the Deity. Yet all that happened was a sudden awareness that they were naked.
"The State of nakedness was indeed a major aspect of the whole incident.... Not only were they naked, they were unaware of the implication of such nakedness....
"....The continuing biblical narrative confirms the connection between nakedness and the lack of knowing, for it took the Deity no time at all to put the two together:
"And He said:
"....While no Mesopotamian counterpart of the biblical tale has yet been found, there can be little doubt that the tale - like all the biblical material concerning Creation and Man's prehistory - was of Sumerian origin. We have the locale: the Abode of the Gods in Mesopotamia. We have the telltale play on words in Eve's name ("she of life," "she of rib.") And we have two vital trees, the Tree of Knowing and the Tree of Life, as in Anu's abode.
"Even the words of the Deity reflect a Sumerian origin, for the sole Hebrew Deity has again lapsed into the plural, addressing divine colleagues, who were featured not in the Bible but in Sumerian texts:
Then did the Deity Yahweh say:
"As many early Sumerian depictions show, there had been a time when Man, as a Primitive Worker, served his gods stark naked. He was naked whether he served the gods their food and drink, or toiled in the fields or on construction jobs.
"....If this "knowing" meant only that Man had come to recognize that having sex with animals was uncivilized or evil, why were Adam and Eve punished for giving up sodomy? The Old Testament is replete with admonitions against sodomy, and it is unconceivable that the learning of a virtue would cause divine wrath.
"That the first representatives of Homo sapiens were incapable of reproduction should not be surprising. Whatever method the Nefilim had used to infuse some of their genetic material into the biological makeup of the hominids they selected for the purpose, the new being was a hybrid, a cross between two different, if related, species. Like a mule (a cross between a mare and a donkey), such mammal hybrids are sterile.
"Were the Nefilim, at first, simply producing "human mules" to suit their requirements?
"Was that what the god whose epithet was "The Serpent" accomplished for Mankind?
"The biblical Serpent surely was not a lowly, literal snake - for he could converse with Eve, he knew the truth about the matter of "knowing," and he was of such high stature that he unhesitatingly exposed the deity as a liar. We recall that in all ancient traditions, the chief deity fought a Serpent adversary - a tale whose roots undoubtedly go back to the Sumerian gods.
"....The possibility that the biblical antagonists - the Deity and the Serpent - stood for Enlil and Enki seems to us entirely plausible.
"....Although Enki had been the true pioneer, while Enlil stayed at the comfortable Mission control Center at Nippur, Enki was sent to organize the mining operations in the Lower World. The mutiny of the Anunnaki was directed at Enlil and his son Ninurta; the god who spoke out for the mutineers was Enki. It was Enki who suggested, and undertook, the creation of Primitive Workers; Enlil had to use force to obtain some of this wonderful creatures. As the Sumerian texts recorded the course of human events, Enki as a rule emerges as Mankind's protagonist, Enlil as its strict discipliner if not outright antagonist. The role of a deity wishing to keep the new humans sexually suppressed, and of a deity willing and capable of bestowing on Mankind the fruit of "knowing," fit Enlil and Enki perfectly.
"Once more, Sumerian and biblical plays on words come to our aid. The biblical term for "Serpent" is nahash which does mean "snake." But the word comes from the root NHSH, which means "to decipher, to find out"; so that nahash could also mean, "he who can decipher, he who finds things out," an epithet befitting Enki, the chief scientist, the God of Knowledge of the Nefilim.
"....Most pertinent to our findings is the fact that in the Mesopotamian texts, the god who eventually granted "knowledge" to Adapa was none other than Enki:
"At some point then, the human beings - banished from Eden - were allowed to return to Mesopotamia, to live alongside the gods, to serve them, and to worship them. As we interpret the biblical statement, this happened in the days of Enosh. It was then that the gods allowed Mankind back into Mesopotamia, to serve the gods "and to call upon the name of the deity."
"...The Deity grieved over the evil "desire" of Man's thoughts. Man, it would seem, having discovered sex, had become a sex maniac.
But the gods were also lovers, they engaged in tender, illicit, and violent love.
"Such gods could hardly turn against Mankind for behaving as they themselves did.
"The Deity's motive, we find, was not merely concern for human morals. The mounting disgust was caused by a spreading defilement of the gods themselves. Seen in this light, the meaning of the baffling opening verses of Genesis 6 becomes clear:
And the Deity said:
"Read in the light of our conclusions regarding the genetic manipulation that was brought to play in Man's creation, the verses carry a message to our own scientists. The "spirit" of the gods - their genetic perfection of Mankind - was beginning to deteriorate. Mankind had "strayed," therefore reverting to being but "flesh" - closer to its animal, simian origins.
"Until the archaeological discoveries of the Mesopotamian civilization and the decipherment of the Akkadian and Sumerian literature, the biblical story of the Deluge stood alone, supported only by scattered primitive mythologies around the world. The discovery of the Akkadian "Epic of Gilgamesh" placed the Genesis Deluge tale in older and venerable company, further enhance by later discoveries of older texts and fragments of the Sumerian original.
"....The parallels with the biblical story are obvious: A Deluge is about to come; one Man is forewarned; he is to save himself by preparing a specially constructed boat; he is to take with him and save the "seed of all living things." Yet the Babylonian version is more plausible. The decision to destroy and the effort to save are not contradictory acts of the same single Deity, but the acts of different deities. Moreover, the decision to forewarn and save the seed of Man is the defiant act of one god (Enki), acting in secret and contrary to the joint decision of the other Great Gods.
Enki advised Utnapishtim, (Akkadian), (the hero of the Mesopotamian Deluge account), all details to the very instant when Utnapishtim was to board himself:
"The will of Enlil and the Assembly of Gods was done.
But unknown to them the scheme of Enki had also worked:
"But what happened to Mankind in general? The biblical tale ends with an assertion that the Deity then permitted and blessed Mankind to "be fruitful and multiply." Mesopotamian versions of the Deluge story also end with verses that deal with Mankind's procreation. The partly mutilated texts speak of the establishment of human "categories:"
"Enlil was outmaneuvered. Mankind saved and allowed to procreate. The gods opened up Earth to Man.
WHEN THE GODS FLED FROM EARTH
"....The Old Testament is a masterpiece of literary brevity and precision. The words are always well chosen to convey precise meanings; the verses are to the point; their order is purposeful; their length is no more than is absolutely needed. It is noteworthy that the whole story from Creation through the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden is told in eighty verses. The complete record of Adam and his line, even when told separately for Cain and his line and Seth, Enosh, and their line, is managed in fifty eight verses. But the story of the Great Flood merited no less than eighty seven verses. It was, by any editorial standard, a "major story." No mere local event, it was a catastrophe affecting the whole of Earth, the whole of Mankind. The Mesopotamian texts clearly state that the "four corners of the Earth" were affected.
".... There were the events and the cities and the people before the Deluge, and the events and cities and people after the Deluge. There were all the deeds of the gods and the Kingship that they lowered from Heaven before the Great Flood, and the course of godly and human events when Kingship was lowered again to Earth after the Great Flood. It was the great time divider.
"....No, the Deluge was no local occurrence or periodic inundation. It was by all counts an Earthshaking event of unparalleled magnitude, a catastrophe the likes of which neither Man nor gods experienced before or since.
"As we proceed to find the answers to these and other questions, we shall find that the Deluge was not a premeditated punishment brought about by the gods at their exclusive will. We shall discover that though the Deluge was a predictable event, it was an unavoidable one, a natural calamity in which the gods played not an active but a passive role. We will also show that the secret the gods swore to was a conspiracy against Mankind - to withhold from the Earthlings the information they had regarding the coming avalanche of water so that, while the Nefilim saved themselves, Mankind should perish.
"....After describing the hard work of the Anunnaki, their mutiny, and the ensuing creation of the Primitive Worker, the epic relates how Man ( as we also know from the biblical version) began to procreate and multiply. In time, Mankind began to upset Enlil.
"....Enlil, once again cast as the prosecutor of Mankind - then ordered a punishment. We would expect now to read of the coming Deluge. But not so. Surprisingly, Enlil did not even mention a Deluge or any similar watery ordeal. Instead, he called for the decimation of Mankind through pestilence and sicknesses.
"He then proceeded to outline the extermination of Mankind through starvation. "Let supplies be cut off from the people; in their bellies, let fruit and vegetables be wanting." The famine was to be achieved through natural forces, by a lack of rain and failing irrigation.
"....Even the sources of sea food were to disappear. Enki was ordered to "draw the bolt, bar the sea," and "guard" its food away from the people.
"....By the sixth "passing", (a year of Anu) cannibalism was rampant.
"At first Enki refused to take the oath. "Why will you bind me with an oath?" "Am I to raise my hands against my own humans?" But he was finally forced to take the oath. But Enki, subtly, spoke to Noah/Utnapishtim and the story is remarkably told in The Twelfth Planet. Utnapishtim, was warned of the Killing Flood.
"....Enki provided him with precise instructions regarding the boat, its measurements, and its construction. Steeped in bible stories, we imagine this "ark" as a very large boat, with decks and superstructures. But the biblical term - teba - stems from the root "sunken," and it must be concluded that Enki instructed his Noah to construct a submersible boat - a submarine.
Noah offers a sacrifice when leaving the Ark. The "gods" were attracted by the aromas and came down, (from their spacecraft). The "gods" had been deprived from food during the rains of the Deluge and the settling of the waters....as explained in The 12th Planet.
"The Akkadian text quotes Enki as calling for a boat "roofed over and below," hermetically sealed with "tough pitch." There were to be no decks, no openings, "so that the sun shall not see inside." It was to be a boat "like an Apsu boat," a sulili; it is the very term used nowadays in Hebrew (soleleth) to denote a submarine.
"....Noah's father had hoped that his birth signaled the end of a long time of suffering. The people's problem was a draught - the absence of rain, the shortage of water. Who in his right mind would have thought that they were to perish in an avalanche of water?
"Yet if the humans could not read the signs, the Nefilim could. To them, the Deluge was not a sudden event; though it was unavoidable, they detected its coming. Their scheme to destroy Mankind rested not on an active but on a passive role by the gods. They did not cause the Deluge; they simply connived to withhold from the Earthlings the fact of its coming.
"Aware, however, of the impending calamity, and of its global impact, the Nefilim took steps to save their own skins. With Earth about to be engulfed by water, they could go in only one direction for protection: skyward. When the storm that preceded the Deluge began to blow, the Nefilim took to their shuttlecraft, and remained in Earth orbit until the waters began to subside.
"The day of the Deluge, we will show, was the day the gods fled from Earth.
"The sign for which Utnapishtim had to watch, upon which he was to join all other in the ark and seal it, was this:
"....Orbiting Earth, the Nefilim saw a scene of destruction that affected them deeply.... Crammed into their spacecraft, the gods strained to see what was happening on the planet from which they had just blasted off.
"....Tablet III of the Atra-Hasis epic describes the conditions on board where some of the Anunnaki shared accommodations with the Mother Goddess:
"....Enki was obviously in yet another spacecraft, or else he would have disclosed to the others that he had managed to save the seed of Mankind. No doubt he had other reasons to feel less gloomy, for the evidence suggests that he had also planned the encounter at Ararat.
"....The Nefilim, as we have shown, used the peaks of Ararat as landmarks from the very beginning. As the highest peaks in that part of the world, they could be expected to reappear first from under the mantle of water. Since Enki, "The Wise One, the All Knowing," certainly could figure that much out, we can surmise that he had instructed his servant to guide the ark toward Ararat, planning the encounter from the very beginning.
From Berossus's version of the Flood, as reported by the Greek Abydenus, relates:
"Of the many theories advanced by the scientists, we are intrigued by the one suggested by Dr. John T. Hollin of the University of Maine. He contended the Antarctic ice sheet periodically breaks loose and slips into the sea, creating an abrupt and enormous tidal wave!
"In 1964, A.T. Wilson of Victoria University in New Zealand offered the theory that ice ages ended abruptly in such slippages, not only in the Antarctic but also in the Arctic. We feel that the various texts and facts gathered by us justify a conclusion that the Deluge was the result of such slippage into the Antarctic waters of billions of tons of ice, bringing an abrupt end to the last ice age.
"The "Epic of Gilgamesh" is specific about the direction from which the storm came: It came from the south. Clouds, winds, rain, and darkness indeed preceded the tidal wave which first tore down the "posts of Nergal" in the Lower World....
"How could the Nefilim predict when the Deluge would burst out of Antarctica?
"The Mesopotamia texts, we know, related the Deluge and the climatic changes preceding it to seven "passings" -undoubtedly meaning the periodic passage of the Twelfth Planet in Earth's vicinity.
"....Could it be that the Nefilim, observing the climatic changes and the instability of the Antarctic ice sheet, realized that the next, seventh "passing" of the Twelfth Planet would trigger the impending catastrophe?
"Ancient texts show that it was so.
Mr. Sitchin also quotes from the Bible in this regard, Psalm 29; Psalm 77; Psalm 104.
"The Deluge, a traumatic experience for Mankind, was so no less for the "gods" - the Nefilim.
"How were they going to survive henceforth on Earth when their cities and facilities had gone, and even their manpower - Mankind - was totally destroyed?
"When the frightened, exhausted, and hungry groups of Nefilim finally landed on the peaks of "Mount of Salvation," they were clearly relieved to discover that Man and beast alike had not perished completely. Even Enlil, at first enraged to discover that his aims had been partly frustrated, soon changed his mind.
"The deity's decision was a practical one. Faced with their own dire conditions, the Nefilim cast their inhibitions about Man, rolled up their sleeves, and lost no time in imparting to Man the art of growing crops and cattle. Since survival, no doubt, depended with the speed with which agriculture and animal domestication could be developed to sustain the Nefilim and a rapidly multiplying Mankind, the Nefilim applied their advanced scientific knowledge to the task.
"...."Sowing and Harvesting" were described in Genesis as divine gifts granted to Noah and his offspring as part of the post-Diluvial covenant between the Deity and Mankind:
"Tracing the beginnings of agriculture, modern scholars have found that it appeared first in the Near East, but not in fertile and easily cultivated plains and valleys. Rather, agriculture began in the mountains skirting the low-lying plains in a semicircle.
"....The only plausible answer is that the low-lying lands were, at the time when agriculture began, uninhabitable.
"....The Sumerian texts state that Enlil first spread cereals "in the hill country...." The name of this mountainous land east of Sumer, E.LAM, meant "house where vegetation germinated." Later, two of Enlil's helpers, the gods Ninazu and Ninmada, extended the cultivation of cereals to the low-lying plains so that, eventually, "Sumer, the land that knew not grain, came to know grain."
"There is no explanation for this botanogenetic miracle, unless the process was not one of natural selection but of artificial manipulation.
"Spelt, a hard-grained type of wheat, poses an even greater mystery...." "It is definitely the result of mixing the genes of several plants. The whole notion that Man, in a few thousand years, changed animals through domestication, is also questionable.
"Modern scholars have no answers to these puzzles, nor to the general question of why the mountainous semicircle in the ancient Near East became a continuous source of new varieties of cereals, plants, trees, fruits, vegetables, and domesticated animals.
"The Sumerians knew the answer. The seeds, they said, were a gift sent to Earth by Anu from his Celestial Abode. Wheat, barley, and hemp were lowered to Earth from the Twelfth Planet. Agriculture and the domestication of animals were gifts given to Mankind by Enlil and Enki, respectively.
"....It appears that the Nefilim, passing knowledge to Man in measured doses, did so in intervals matching the periodic returns of the Twelfth Planet to Earth's vicinity....
"....The "Epic of Etana" provides a glimpse of the deliberation that took place. In the days that followed the Deluge, it says:
"A text dealing with the subject describes the situation before either tiara or crown had been placed on a human head, or scepter handed down; all these symbols of Kingship - plus the shepherd's crook - the symbol of righteousness and justice - "lay deposited before Anu in Heaven." After the gods had reached their decision, however, Kingship descended from "Heaven to Earth."
"Both Sumerian and Akkadian texts state that the Nefilim retained the "lordship" over the lands, and had Mankind first rebuild the pre-diluvial cities exactly where they had originally been.... Eridu, then, was first to be rebuilt.
"The Nefilim then helped the people plan and build the first royal city, and they blessed it. "May the city be the nest, the place where Mankind shall repose. May the King be a Shepherd."
"The first royal city of Man, the Sumerian texts tell us, was Kish.
"The Sumerian king lists, unfortunately, are mutilated just where the name of the very first human king was inscribed.
After Noah, three regions became of concern to the great Anunnaki, Mesopotamia and the Near Eastern lands, where Shem and descendants settled. Africa and parts of Arabia, where Ham and descendants settled. Japhet, and descendants, the Indo-Europeans in Asia Minor, Iran, India, and Europe.
Mr. Sitchin also gives the main points of the development of each subsequent civilization as they flourished.
"The fourth region was "holy" - a term whose original meaning was "dedicated, restricted." Dedicated to the gods alone, it was a "pure land," an area that could be approached only with authorization; trespassing could lead to quick death by "awesome weapons" wielded by fierce guards. This land or region was named TIL.MUN (literally, "the place of the missiles"). It was the restricted area where the Nefilim had reestablished their space base after the one at Sippar had been wiped out by the Deluge.
"Once again the area was placed under the command of Utu/Shamash." The one in charge of the Eagles.
"But where was this elusive land of the divine connection?